Useful AIX commands

Useful AIX commands

svmon -P <pid>

use can user svmon command to monitor memory usage as follows;

(A) #svmon -P -v -t 10 | more         (will give top ten processes)
(B) #svmon -U -v -t 10 | more         ( will give top ten user)

smit install requires "inutoc ." first.  It'll autogenerate a .toc for you
I believe, but if you later add more .bff's to the same directory, then
the inutoc . becomes important.  It is of course, a table of contents.

dump -ov /dir/xcoff-file

topas, -P is useful # similar to top

When creating really big filesystems, this is very helpful:
chlv -x 6552 lv08
Word on the net is that this is required for filesystems over 512M.

esmf04m-root> crfs -v jfs -g'ptmpvg' -a size='884998144' -m'/ptmp2'
-A''`locale yesstr | awk -F: '{print $1}'`'' -p'rw' -t''`locale yesstr |
awk -F: '{print $1}'`'' -a frag='4096' -a nbpi='131072' -a ag='64'
Based on the parameters chosen, the new /ptmp2 JFS file system
is limited to a maximum size of 2147483648 (512 byte blocks)
New File System size is 884998144

If you give a bad combination of parameters, the command will list
possibilities.  I got something like this from smit, then seasoned
to taste.

If you need files larger than 2 gigabytes in size, this is better.
It should allow files up to 64 gigabytes:
 crfs -v jfs -a bf=true -g'ptmpvg' -a size='884998144' -m'/ptmp2' -A''` |
  |   locale yesstr | awk -F: '{print $1}'`'' -p'rw' -t''`locale yesstr | aw |
  |   k -F: '{print $1}'`'' -a nbpi='131072' -a ag='64'

Show version of SSP (IBM SP switch) software:
lslpp -al ssp.basic

llctl -g reconfig - make loadleveler reread its config files

oslevel (sometimes lies)
oslevel -r (seems to do better)

lsdev -Cc adapter

pstat -a looks useful

vmo is for VM tuning

On 1000BaseT, you really want this:
chdev -P -l ent2 -a media_speed=Auto_Negotiation

Setting jumbo frames on en2 looks like:
ifconfig en2 down detach
chdev -l ent2 -a jumbo_frames=yes
chdev -l en2 -a mtu=9000
chdev -l en2 -a state=up

Search for the meaning of AIX errors:

NFS tuning on AIX, courtesy of Ross Aiken:

nfso -a shows AIX NFS tuning parameters; good to check on if you're
getting badcalls in nfsstat.  Most people don't bother to tweaks these

nfsstat -m shows great info about full set of NFS mount options

Turn on path mtu discovery
no -o tcp_pmtu_discover=1
no -o udp_pmtu_discover=1
TCP support is handled by the OS.  UDP support requires cooperation
between OS and application.

nfsstat -c shows rpc stats

To check for software problems:
lppchk -v
lppchk -c
lppchk -l

List subsystem (my word) status:
lssrc -a

This starts sendmail:
startsrc -s sendmail -a "-bd -q30m"

This makes inetd reread its config file.  Not sure if it kills and
restarts or just HUP's or what:
refresh -s inetd

lsps is used to list the characteristics of paging space.

Turning off ip forwarding:
/usr/sbin/no -o ipforwarding=0

Detailed info about a specific error:
errpt -a -jE85C5C4C
BTW, Rajiv Bendale tells me that errors are stored in NVRAM on AIX,
so you don't have to put time into replicating an error as often.

Some or all of these will list more than one number.  Trust the first,
not the second.

lslpp -l ppe.poe
...should list the version of poe installed on the system

Check on compiler versions:
lslpp -l vac.C
lslpp -l vacpp.cmp.core

Check on loadleveler version:
lslpp -l LoadL.full

If you want to check the bootlist do bootlist -o -m normal if you want to
update bootlist do bootlist -m normal hdisk* hdisk* cd* rmt*


Run the ssadiag against the drive and the adapter and it will tell you if it 
fails or not. Then if its a hot plugable it can be replaced online.

You can get patches from:

You'll need to click through a bit of red tape before getting to where
you actually can list corequisites and start a download.

BTW, "Add to my download list" does not work in konqueror, but it does
work in mozilla.

Backup to tape:
env - /usr/bin/mksysb  '-m'  '-i' '-X' /dev/rmt0
The "env -" is because some sort of environment variable can confuse
mksysb, making it error out instead of doing your backup
There's also "smitty mksysb"

You can create an image using the savevg command i.e.

savevg -v -n -9 / _rootvg.img rootvg

This can be used to build a NIM installable image to recover your systems

alternatively, the command line call for a mksysb to tape (to include map
and exclude files) is /usr/bin/mksysb  '-m' '-e'  '-i'  /dev/rmt0

Finding which lpp contains a file:
lslpp -w /usr/sbin/umount

There exists a "diag CD" for AIX.


lsattr -El sys0 | grep realmem
lsattr -El mem0

See if you AIX system's hardware is CHRP (some sort of PowerPC reference
platform spec, I believe) :
bootinfo -p

Some really funky hardware-looking problems can be fixed by draining
the NVRAM battery for 5 minutes, and then reinstalling the microcode.
We used to do this on some IBM RT's in Cincinnati, and a recent poster
to AIX-L indicates that it's still useful in some situations.

From AIX-L:
AIX 4.3.2 -> AIX 4.3.3 is the most easiest Upgrade of ALL. Place the
AIX 4.3.3 Vol 1 of CD on the CDROM drive and run smitty update_all ,
this will upgrade the OS

On the subject of running out of paging space, from AIX-L:
Look into npswarn, npskill stuff in Performance Management Guide

Changing the boot device order:
Boot the server, and hit 1 or F1 (depending if you have an ascii console
or a graphics console) when the logos come up to get to sms mode. In
the menus select multiboot, select boot devices, select boot order.

You should start tracing for inetd subsystem with

traceson -s inetd

and then issue:

trpt -j

you will see the protocols control blocks (PID) you're tracing, and then with:

trpt -p <PID>

you should see output for telnet communications. But this is not working.

Why don't you try using iptrace and ipreport to see the behavior of your
telnet sessions ??

Purportedly orks with JFS 1 and 2:

To split off a mirrored copy of the /home/xyz file system to a new mount
point named /jfsstaticcopy, type the following:

chfs -a splitcopy=/jfsstaticcopy /home/xyz

You can control which mirrored copy is used as the backup by using the
copy attribute. The second mirrored copy is the default if a copy is
not specified by the user. For example:

 chfs -a splitcopy=/jfsstaticcopy -a copy=1 /home/xyz

At this point, a read-only copy of the file system is available in
/jfsstaticcopy. Any changes made to the original file system after the
copy is split off are not reflected in the backup copy.

To reintegrate the JFS split image as a mirrored copy at the /testcopy
mount point, use the following command:

 rmfs /testcopy

The rmfs command removes the file system copy from its split-off state
and allows it to be reintegrated as a mirrored copy.

Working around a loader domain problem:

esmf04m-strombrg> /usr/local/bin/gribmap 
exec(): 0509-036 Cannot load program /usr/local/bin/gribmap because of
the following errors:
        0509-030 Insufficient permission to create loader domain
        0509-026 System error: The file access permissions do not allow
        the specified action.

esmf04m-strombrg> LIBPATH=$TMPDIR/gribmap-ld /usr/local/bin/gribmap 
gribmap v1.4 for GrADS Version 1.8SL11

Apparently you can also link your application with -L$TMPDIR/loaderdomain
or so, but you'd need a unique one for each set of shared libraries.
This one apparently must be the first -L in the link line.

Please see also:

/usr/bin/uname -M
Gets the machine type?

Anyway, set the timezone variable TZ in /etc/environment like this:


...takes effect after everyone logs out and back in.  This is just an
example, not something for California.

"svmon" will give u this output which give u the information regarding
ur memory.

               size      inuse       free        pin    virtual
memory      1310711    1298235      12476     103782     711466
pg space    2097152     585219
               work       pers       clnt      lpage
pin          103782          0          0          0
in use       438570      10130     849535          0


Scott (of IBM, onsite hardware tech) stuff:

lsdev -Cc adapter
"defined" means at one time the piece of hardware was on system - as
opposed to "available".  A card which is being newly added should not
temporarily pass through "defined" state.  Hardware should be in the
"available" state.
lsslot -c pci
p1-i1 is the first slot on the back left
diadiagnostic routines
problem determination
sfp: phones home (to IBM) over modem
previously reported problem
task selection
hot plug task
pci or scsi
identify function will blink light, so you can make sure the hardware
and software are on the same page.
u1.1 drawer address, bottom left
EIA numbers on right and left of rack, goes to lowest of the numbers
adjacent to the equipment in question.  EG, something in the rack might
be 3 EIA numbers high - the software should identify the hardware by
the lowest number of the 3.
hotplug in os removes voltage from slot, slot light should blink yellow,
same as for identify.
we have older "hotswap cassettes" - which means lots of screws.
Newer ones snap together.  It also can take a bit of wrestling to get
the card in and out of the old cassettes (shades of Sun's IPX's :)
yellow llight continues blinking after card inserted, until software is
told to let the slot have voltage again.
advanced diagnostics, search for thing to test visually
takes awhile to run, checks all devices on machine
no output, but then lsdev -Cc adapter again should change afterward
ps -ef | grep Worm
splstdata -a
should not say not_configured
use rc.switch to make it configured
ps -ef pipe | Worm again, should show up now
Eunfence 49 - 49  is 04m
spmon -d
"d" for diagnostic
like front panel leds
"host responds" and "switch responds" should say yes for all css adapters
errpt (no args)
Scott says that sometimes an SP2 system will refuse to acknowledge the
new adapter, in which case you have to lie to the ODM to make the system
see the card.  He suggested that maybe we did not need to do that this
time, because we have the latest pssp (ssp.*) software on the system.
We also had to Eunfence the node whose card was replaced.

Rajiv tells me that it does not matter which host is Eprimary, as long as
one of the nodes is, and there aren't things fenced off that shouldn't be.

mount -v cdrfs -o ro /dev/cd0 /mnt
Mount iso9660 filesystem

More on cfgmgr, from aix-l:

you can execute cfgmgr on line without trouble

normally cfgmgr have 3 steps named phases :
phase 1 during boot
phase 2 during normal boot (after phase1)
phase 3 durinf service boot (after phase1)

if you run cfgmgr without flags (-p or -f) cfgmgr executes phase 2 only by

in fact cfgmgr and cfgmgr -p2 are the sames commands
flag -v for verbose

AIX 5.2 has builtin CIFS client?
mount -v cifs -n winserver/myuser/mypassword /home /mnt

Can also "smitty cifs_fs"

This is supposed to be included in lpp bos.cifs_fs

Apparently this was added in AIX 5.2

please check if your cd device is being used by some process by running:

fuser -c /dev/cd0

you can also chack if cdromd is up and running by:

lssrc -a | grep cd

if cdromd is running, then try with the following commands:



here is some commands to manipulate the ODM directly (I don't suggest you
do so, at least you know exactly what you are doing).
odmget, odmshow, odmchange, odmadd, odmdelete, odmdrop

lsps -a

nmon - free, unsupported download from IBM
What's this about chmod'ing kmem to be world readable though?!

esmf04m-dcsew> instfix -i | grep ML
    All filesets for were found.
    All filesets for 5100-01_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 5100-02_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 5100-03_AIX_ML were found.
    All filesets for 5100-04_AIX_ML were found.

The specifix fixes can be checked using instfix command:
#instfix -ivk <APAR no.>
e.g #instfix -ivk IY56076

instfix -ciqk 4330-08_AIX_ML | grep ":-:"
Lists what filesets need to be installed for instfix to show "All filesets
for 4330-08 were found".

instfix -k "IX#####" -d /dev/rmt0.1
Installs the APAR and its prerequisites on the system.

installp -Xagqd /dev/rmt0.1 X11.base.rte
Installs Xwindows on the system.

installp -u
deletes an AIX lpp

Copious network statistics:
entstat -d ent0

Making AIX 5.1 see a change to /etc/inetd.conf and/or /etc/services
and/or /etc/rpc is different from most other systems (only verified
using one rpc/udp service so far)

You can't just kill -HUP inetd's pid

What you can do, is "smitty inetd", stop inetd, start inetd, and exit smitty.

Alternatively, it -should- work to:
stopsrc -s inetd
startsrc -s inetd

Or better:
Edit /etc/inetd.conf and comment out ftp and refresh inetd by issuing
"refresh -s inetd"

startsrc -t ftpd -u 022 -l

To truly change the kernel to 64-bit, you need to be at the 5.1 oslevel. The
means to change to a 64-bit kernel are:

From 32-bit to 64-bit:

     ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_64 /unix
     ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_64 /usr/lib/boot/unix
     lslv -m hd5
     bosboot -ad /dev/ipldevice
     shutdown -Fr
     bootinfo -K (should now be 64)

To change the kernel back to 32-bit:

From 64-bit to 32-bit:

     ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_mp /unix
     ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_mp /usr/lib/boot/unix
     lslv -m hd5
     bosboot -ad /dev/ipldevice
     shutdown -Fr
     bootinfo -K (should now be 32)If you are running AIX 5.1

Switching From 32 to 64 Bit Mode

To switch from 32-bit mode to 64-bit mode run the following commands,
in the given order:

   1.ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_64 /unix 
   2.ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_64 /usr/lib/boot/unix 
   3.bosboot -ad /dev/ipldevice 
   4.shutdown -Fr 
   5.bootinfo -K (should now show 64) 

Switching From 64 To 32-Bit Mode

To switch from 64-bit mode to 32-bit mode run the following commands,
in the given order:

   1.ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_mp /unix 
   2.ln -sf /usr/lib/boot/unix_mp /usr/lib/boot/unix 
   3.bosboot -ad /dev/ipldevice 
   4.shutdown -Fr 
   5.bootinfo -K (should now show 32) 

Moulay Rachid BOUSSETA

To see if you're running with a 32 bit or 64 bit kernel, run:

bootinfo -K
prtconf -k

esmf04m-root> PATH=/usr/bin:/usr/sbin prtconf -k
Kernel Type: 64-bit
esmf04m-root> bootinfo -K

bootinfo -s hdiskxxx

lspv hdiskXX    as well is defined on a Volume Group

lsattr -El hdiskXX

lscfg -vp -l hdiskXX

These should give you the raw disk capacity

Go to:
Choose: 1)pSeries family
        2)AIX OS,Java, compilers
        3)Specifi fix
        4)Your OS
Press continue....

type in your requisites in the text box. thats it!

LPP history:

lslpp -h

sar 1 10

bootinfo -b                    reports last device the system booted from
bootinfo -k                    reports keyswitch position
                               1=secure, 2=service, 3=normal

bootinfo -r                    reports amount of memory (/ by 1024)
bootinfo -s (disk device)      reports size of disk drive
bootinfo -T                    reports type of machine 
                               ie rspc,rs6ksmp,rspc or chrp
bootinfo -y                    reports your hardware arquitecture (32
bits or 64 bits)

bootinfo -K                    reports if the kernel in memory is 32
bits or 64 bits

You can submit/check a pSeries PMR via the web at:

Force a user to change their password on their next login:
pwdadm -f ADMCHG username
Note that this works with some sshd's and not others

Identifying hard disk issues:

svmon -G
vmstat 1 20
iostat -d hdisk0 1 20
ps avg | sort +3r -n | head -25

Maximum number of processes a user can have:
lsattr -E -l sys0 -a maxuproc

smitty chgsys
Also allows one to change the max number of processes per user, among
other things


by Host Resource you mean the AIX SNMP component that monitors system 
resources ??

if so, then there's a conf file for the daemon aixmibd named 
/etc/aixmibd.conf where you can configure the thresholds for many 
monitors. Once you have configure this then you should activate the daemon 
by issuing:

startsrc -s aixmibd

Please remember to uncomment the line that starts aixmibd in /etc/rc.tcpip 

On AIX patches:

1) An APAR (Authorized Program Analysis Report) is a bunch of software 
patches that solves many problems while a PTF (is the same as Fix and 
means Program Temporary Fix) is a patch that solves one specific problem. 
You will download Maintenance Levels (ML) as APARs from IBM Software Web 

2) You should install the latest Maintenance Level for the AIX version you 
have installed (usually a big bunch of software up to 650 MB that needs 
almost 1GB space to be decompressed and installed). As AIX 5L is new 
technology from IBM they're patching many problems and generating ML very 
often. You can download from

3) First, you have to know which Fix or PTF to install, then download it 
from the above web link, then copy to a location in the server (usually 
PTF's are copied to /usr/sys/inst.images directory as well as there's 
enough space (what i do is to create a new FS of some 2 GB dize and mount 
it over /usr/sys/inst.images, after installing the APAR or PTF i just 
delete the FS without deleting the mount point). Then uncompress or unzip, 
untar, whatever, and using the fastpath    smitty update_all in AIX you 
can install or preview the installation of any patches. I recommend using 
preview option before real installation and also recommend installing 
patches in APPLIED status, that is, both either original or old version 
and newest version of the software are installed, so you can REJECT the 
installation of any patch.

4) You can remove any single fileset with the fastpath     smitty remove

5) A COMMITed software is installed and the only way to reject it is by 
uninstalling the software fileset while a APPLIED software is installed 
and the preview versions of filesets are installed too so if you REJECT 
the APPLIED software then those older versions will be active again.

Checking on known maintenance levels:

esmf04m-strombrg> oslevel -qr
Known Recommended Maintenance Levels

esmf04m-strombrg> lppchk -v

Dual booting AIX:

>Okay you install AIX 5.1 on hdisk0 as example and boot your maschine.  th=
>you clone your rootvg to hdisk1 :
>alt_disk_install -C  hdisk1
>so you have hdisk0 with old_rootvg
>and hdisk1 with alt_*rootvg
>bootlist -m hdisk0 hdisk1 (means you boot from hdisk0 first and hdisk1
>boot with AIX5.2 CD and install with Migartion Option from prompt on
>now you have Aix5.2 on hdisk0 and aix5.1 on hdisk1
>if you want to remove the alternate disk install:
>alt_disk_install -X

Installing an IBM maintenance release upgrade:

Go to the IBM Support Fix Central site:

* Server 
Select "Pseries family" or the series that your server is.

* Product or fix type
Select "AIX OS, java, compilers"

* Ordering option
Select "Mainteneance packages"

* OS level
Select "AIX 5.1"

Select "continue" for next screen

Current level
Select "5100-04"

Desired Level
Select "5100-05"

Select "go"

Download "510405.tar.gz " at the bottom of the page

Follow the instructions

Locking an account:

The following procedure can be used to lock a user's account;
(1) smitty user
(2) select, change the characteristics of a user
(3) Expiration Date: input the effective date, when this account will be 
expiring / closing
(4) Is this user account locked: false, use tab key to choose true
(5) User can login:true, use tab key to change true to false
(6) user can login remotely:true, use tab key to change true to false
(7) Press enter key and account will be locked
(8) for further security also change the password

to permit the user to login after 30 days / specfied time revert the above 
fields to original values.

If an ESMF node mostly falls off the net (strobe shows only about 5
ports open), then:

1) Go down to the ESMF HMC
2) Log in
3) Locate the right window to use
4) Log in to the trouble machine
5) kill and restart srcmstr
6) startsrc -s inetd
7) startsrc -s sshd
8) startsrc -s automountd
9) /etc/nfs.clean
10) /etc/rc.nfs

There may be other things that need to be started up as well, but this
has been sufficient so far.

Following the documentation if you issue the following command you will 
activate HMT or Hardware MultiThreading

# bosdebug -H on
Memory debugger           off
Memory sizes              0
Network memory sizes      0                                             
Kernel debugger           off                                           
Real Time Kernel          off
HMT                       on

...but only if your hardware -supports- HMT!

Definiing a virtual network interface:
ifconfig en# alias

Checking if NFS is active:
lssrc -a | egrep nfs
 biod             nfs              20752   active
 nfsd             nfs              21426   active
 rpc.mountd       nfs              27888   active
 rpc.statd        nfs              22730   active
 rpc.lockd        nfs              24280   active

nfso -o nfs_use_reserved_ports=1

Find where gzip lives, package-wise:
which_fileset gzip

Get the machine model:

esmf04m-strombrg> /usr/bin/uname -M

Looks a lot like prtconf?

You can check microcode version by issuing the following command


if this does not work, then

lscfg -vp | grep -i alterable

You can download Fixes and microcodes not only for your Server nut for any 

peripheral devices from

1. Type no  -o  tcp_keepinit=3750  The initial timeout for TCP/IP will change 
   from 75 seconds to 31.25 minutes. The time (3750) is in 1/2 seconds.

2.  Type no  -o  tcp_keepidle=86400  The connection will be kept alive
for 12 hours.

The above two items will not be active once a reboot is done. If this
solves your problem you can add the statements to your /etc/rc.tcpip file.

filemon Command

Monitors the performance of the file system, and reports the I/O activity on
behalf of logical files, virtual memory segments, logical volumes, and physical

...can be used to check what kind of filesystem a filesystem is

Apparently can be used to snoop on a tty/pty on AIX?  A bit like screen
or VNC, but without the forethought requirement.

Restoring from a mksysb tape:

You can either boot from your mksysb Medium (band Streamer or cdrom) and

change your bootlist:

if you have a Band Streamer, so you can boot from AIX Installation Medium
and choose point 3 (Maintenance mode) and restore from media.

Determing what needs to be upgraded to advance to a higher os level:
you can do an "instfix -i | grep ML" to list which maintenance level is
incomplete and then show what filesets are required i.e. if AIX 5.2 ML02 is
incomplete do  "instfix -ivk 5200-01_AIX_ML | grep ":" | grep not"

Nice page with AIX OpenSSH bff's, a script for creating bff's, a script
for setting up LBX for use with ssh, and more.

An example mksysb backup:

# mksysb /dev/rmt0

Creating tape boot image ...

Creating list of files to back up .
Backing up 68614 files..............................
17379 of 68614 files backed up (25%)..............................
25331 of 68614 files backed up (36%)..............................
25341 of 68614 files backed up (36%)..............................
55359 of 68614 files backed up (80%).................
68614 of 68614 files backed up (100%)
0512-038 mksysb: Backup Completed Successfully.
# echo $PATH

Note the PATH!  The backup failed when I had a larger PATH.

IBM's document describing AIX to Solaris admins:

Changing the boot device:

Boot from aix cd's into maint shell and run the bosboot -ad /dev/hdisk0

Or if the hd5 boot device is mirrored on hdisk0 and hdisk1 all you need
to do is boot into sms menu and ensure both disks are selected in the
boot order. 

To access sms hit 1 before it does a speaker test. 
You can boot it up into what used to be called SMS mode .. i.e. hit F1 at
the 'keyboard' prompt ... You can change the boot device from there and
then make sure that you rerun your bosboot once you have booted up.
Couldn't be simpler

manctsr/ >lsvg rootvg -p
hdisk0            active      542         245         28..00..00..108..109
hdisk1            active      542         245         28..00..00..108..109
manctsr/ >lsvg rootvg -l
LV NAME             TYPE       LPs   PPs   PVs  LV STATE      MOUNT POINT
hd5                 boot       1     2     2    closed/syncd  N/A
hd6                 paging     64    128   2    open/syncd    N/A
hd8                 jfslog     1     2     2    open/syncd    N/A
hd4                 jfs        1     2     2    open/syncd    /
hd2                 jfs        27    54    2    open/syncd    /usr
hd9var              jfs        3     6     2    open/syncd    /var
hd3                 jfs        5     10    2    open/syncd    /tmp
hd1                 jfs        1     2     2    open/syncd    /home
apachelv            jfs        5     10    2    open/syncd    /apache
cv4=5Fhome            jfs        172   344   2    open/syncd 
cv4=5Fdec             jfs        15    30    2    open/syncd /export/cv4=5Fd=
lv00                jfs        2     4     2    open/syncd    /mn/script

# lsvg rootvg -l
LV NAME             TYPE       LPs   PPs   PVs  LV STATE      MOUNT POINT
hd5                 boot       1     2     2    closed/syncd  N/A
hd6                 paging     40    80    2    open/syncd    N/A
hd8                 jfslog     1     2     2    open/syncd    N/A
hd4                 jfs        1     2     2    open/syncd    /
hd2                 jfs        71    142   2    open/syncd    /usr
hd9var              jfs        1     2     2    open/syncd    /var
hd3                 jfs        2     4     2    open/syncd    /tmp
hd1                 jfs        4     8     2    open/syncd    /home
hd10opt             jfs        2     4     2    open/syncd    /opt
log1                jfslog     1     2     2    closed/syncd  N/A
paging01            paging     9     18    2    open/syncd    N/A
hd14                jfs        4     8     2    closed/syncd  N/A

PSSP has it's own 5 CD set (PSSP-3.5) and has to be ordered.  Thanks

Don't panic!  DISK_ERR4 (in errpt) is just a bad block relocation and
is a somewhat
"normal" occurrence.  You only need to be concerned about these errors
if you notice them increasing in number on the same disk.  So - you need
to track it but not necessarily replace it.

What kernel level (lslpp -l 'bos.[um]p*')

The hardware must be CHRP (Common Hardware Reference Platform) in order for
5.2 or greater to be supported.

You can determine that by issuing "bootinfo -p".

Nice article on AIX backups:

A fix for some kinds of tape backup problems:

please post the output of the following command

lsattr -El rmt0

we are looking for the value "ret error", if this is set to true then i'd 
recommend changing it to false by issuing a smitty devices->Tape 
devices->Change Tape Devices

How to create mksysb to a remote tape drive.
  **** Note mksysb will not be bootable ***
 Lets say tape drive is on systemA and you need to create                 
 mksysb of system                                                        
 You should be able to do rsh from systemB to systemA
 Create the script remote_mksysb on systemB with following lines.
 rm -f /tmp/pipe                                                           

 mknod /tmp/pipe p                                                         
 mksysb /tmp/pipe &
 dd if=/tmp/pipe | rsh systemA "dd of=/dev/rmt0 bs=1024 conv=sync"
 rm /tmp/pipe

Generating a list of system calls known to the kernel:

dd if=/proc/$$/sysent of=/tmp/out

(check the end)

Reading a tape


tctl rewind
tctl fsf 3
restore -Tqvf /dev/rmt0.1|pg


tctl rewind
tctl fsf 5
restore -Tqvf /dev/rmt0.1|pg

I think that all these following commands mean the same thing :

# bootinfo -y
# prtconf -c
CPU Type: 32-bit
# bootinfo -K

On alt_disk_install:

We use it mainly to reduce downtime while upgrading the systems and also
to have a quick back out path. You can have the new built image install
on the alt disks. Switch boot device to the new partition and your newly
upgraded system up and running.  If your system has any problems you
cannot fix with adjustments, you can switch back to the old partition
and bring out the old software.

Outage time is little over a reboot worth of time.

First, try to start the switch adapter daemon (worm) with  rc.switch. 

Now refer to the docs at:

Good luck - these SP switch problems are notoriously hard to fix.

Enabling quotas on a JFS filesystem (and perhaps others) :

Edit /etc/filesystems and edit in quota=userquota on the relevant filesystem.

esmf04m-root> chfs -a "quota = userquota" /home
esmf04m-root> quotaon /home
esmf04m-root> quotacheck /home

If a program proves too large to compile with the default options due
to a toc overflow, please try adding:

	-Wl,-b -Wl,bigtoc your $CC or $LDFLAGS

bash-2.05b$ lsattr -El ent0

alt_addr       0x000000000000   Alternate ethernet address
busintr        553                             Bus interrupt level
busmem         0xf8080000          Bus memory address
chksum_offload yes                    Enable hardware transmit and
receive checksum True
compat_mode    no                    Gigabit Backward compatability
copy_bytes     2048                    Copy packet if this many or less
bytes        True
flow_ctrl      yes                            Enable Transmit and Receive
Flow Control      True
intr_priority  3                            Interrupt priority
intr_rate      10000                    Interrupt events processed per
interrupt      True
jumbo_frames   no                   Transmit jumbo frames
large_send     yes                     Enable hardware TX TCP
resegmentation         True
media_speed    Auto_Negotiation Media speed
rom_mem        0xf8040000       ROM memory address
rx_hog         1000                      RX buffers processed per RX
interrupt         True
rxbuf_pool_sz  2048                 Rcv buffer pool, make 2X rxdesc_que_sz
rxdesc_que_sz  1024               RX descriptor queue size
slih_hog       10                          Max Interrupt events processed
per interrupt  True
tx_que_sz      8192                   Software transmit queue size
txdesc_que_sz  1024              TX descriptor queue size
use_alt_addr   no                     Enable alternate ethernet address

# lsslot -c pci
# Slot      Description                         Device(s)
U0.1-P1-I1  PCI-X capable, 64 bit, 133MHz slot  Empty   
U0.1-P1-I2  PCI-X capable, 32 bit, 66MHz slot   Empty   
U0.1-P1-I3  PCI-X capable, 32 bit, 66MHz slot   pci9 lai0 
U0.1-P1-I4  PCI-X capable, 64 bit, 133MHz slot  Empty   
U0.1-P1-I5  PCI-X capable, 64 bit, 133MHz slot  Empty   
U0.1-P1-I6  PCI-X capable, 64 bit, 133MHz slot  Empty

Operating System and Devices
Split a Mirrored Disk from a Volume Group
Beginning with AIX 5.2, snapshot support helps you protect the
consistency of your mirrored volume groups from potential disk failure.
Using the snapshot feature, you can split off a mirrored disk or disks
to use as a reliable (from the standpoint of the LVM metadata)
point-in-time backup of a volume group, and, when needed, reliably
reintegrate the split disks into the volume group. In the following
procedure, you first split off a mirrored disk from a volume group and
then you merge the split-off disk into the original volume group. To
further ensure the reliability of your snapshot, file systems must be
unmounted and applications that use raw logical volumes must be in a
known state (a state from which the application can recover if you need
to use the backup).

A volume group cannot be split if any one of the following is true:

A disk is already missing. 
The last non-stale partition would be on the split-off volume group. 
Any stale partitions exist in the volume group, unless you use the force
flag (-f) with the splitvg command.
Furthermore, the snapshot feature (specifically, the splitvg command)
cannot be used in enhanced or classic concurrent mode. The split-off
volume group cannot be made concurrent or enhanced concurrent and there
are limitations to the changes allowed for both the split-off and the
original volume group. For details, read the chvg command description in
AIX 5L Version 5.2 Commands Reference.

Ensure that the volume group is fully mirrored and that the mirror
exists on a disk or set of disks that contains only this set of mirrors.

To enable snapshot support, split off the original volume group (origVG)
to another disk or set of disks, using the following command: 
splitvg origVG
At this point, you now have a reliable point-in-time backup of the
original volume group. Be aware, however, that you cannot change the
allocation on the split-off volume group. 
Reactivate the split-off disk and merge it into the original volume
group using the following command: 
joinvg origVG
At this point, the split-off volume group is now reintegrated with the
original volume group.

Configuring ntp

1) Stop the xntpd daemon

The xntpd daemon is managed by the System Resource Controller (SRC).
To verify that the xntpd daemon is active : lssrc -s xntpd : status
should be "active"
To stop the xntpd subsystem : stopsrc -s xntpd

Note : xntpd is automatically started in /etc/rc.tcpip. To verify this :
cat /etc/rc.tcpip | grep xntpd.

2) Modify the /etc/ntp.conf file

Put the following lines in the /etc/ntp.conf file :

server <IP address or FQDN of timeserver> prefer
driftfile /etc/ntp.drift
tracefile /etc/ntp.trace

3) Restart the xntp daemon

To restart the xntpd daemon :
startsrc -s xntpd

4) Check status of time synchronization

To check the status of the time synchronisation, use the ntpq utility.
ntpq -i : start ntpq interactively

ntpq> peer

     remote                    refid             st t when poll reach
delay   offset    disp
* .PPS.            1 u  863 1024  377     0.92    0.160    0.47

The "offset" field displays the difference (in milliseconds) between the
system time and the reference time.
Type "quit" to exit the ntpq utility.

Kind of like ldd:
dump -X32 -Tv /bin/ls

Getting security notices from IBM:

Changing prngd to listen on a socket, using chsys:

esmfcws-root> chssys -s prngd -a '-f /dev/egd-pool -m 666 tcp/localhost:708'
0513-077 Subsystem has been changed.
esmfcws-root> ps -ef | grep prng
    root  303186 1015878   0 19:19:43  pts/2  0:00 grep prng
    root 1007836  262212   0 19:04:42      -  0:01
    /opt/freeware/sbin/prngd -f /dev/egd-pool -m 666
esmfcws-root> stopsrc -s prngd
0513-044 The prngd Subsystem was requested to stop.
esmfcws-root> startsrc -s prngd
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 852062.
esmfcws-root> ps -ef | grep prng
    root  852062  262212   0 19:20:42      -  0:01
    /opt/freeware/sbin/prngd -f /dev/egd-pool -m 666 tcp/localhost:708
    root 1007846 1015878   0 19:20:54  pts/2  0:00 grep prng
esmfcws-root> /usr/lo
local       lost+found
esmfcws-root> /usr/local/sbin/gen-pas
Not bad, using prngd for entropy

Or if prngd isn't already partially set up:

esmf04m-root> mkssys -s prngd -p /opt/freeware/sbin/prngd -u root -a
'-f /dev/egd-pool -m 666 tcp/localhost:708'
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
esmf04m-root> lssrc -s prngd
Subsystem         Group            PID     Status 
 prngd                                     inoperative

esmf04m-root> for i in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8; do ssh esmf0${i}m "mkssys -s
prngd -p /opt/freeware/sbin/prngd -u root -a '-f /dev/egd-pool -m 666
tcp/localhost:708'"; done
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
0513-075 The new subsystem name is already on file.
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
0513-071 The prngd Subsystem has been added.
esmf04m-root> for i in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8;
do ssh esmf0${i}m "stopsrc -s prngd"; done
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
0513-044 The prngd Subsystem was requested to stop.
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
0513-004 The Subsystem or Group, prngd, is currently inoperative.
esmf04m-root> for i in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8; do ssh esmf0${i}m "startsrc
-s prngd"; done
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 25880.
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 34508.
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 30670.
0513-029 The prngd Subsystem is already active.
Multiple instances are not supported.
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 37450.
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 21266.
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 27662.
0513-059 The prngd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 42666.

Don't forget /etc/prngd.conf

Only JFS file systems can be large-file-enabled.  If you use JFS2, they
handle files greater than 2GB out of the box.

Mike Badar

Checking on whether the "Trusted Computing Base" is configured:

please issue the following commands:

fuser -c /mnt 

and check for any PID that maybe locking your CD device. If you have any, 
you can kill them all bye issuing

fuser -ck /mnt

and try to eject the CDROM. If this doesn't work at all, then check for 
the cdromd daemon (new feature ported for Solaris into AIX) with the 
following command:

lssrc -a | grep cdrom

if cdromd is running, then you should umount the cdrom device:

cdumount /cdrom/cdXX

Linux, by default, requires any NFS mount to use a reserved port below 1024.
AIX, by default, uses ports above 1024. Use the following command to
restrict AIX to the reserved port range: 

# /usr/sbin/nfso -o nfs_use_reserved_ports=1

Creating a subsystem:
mkssys -s smbd -p /opt/freeware/sbin/smbd -u 0  -a "-D" -d -q -S -n 15
-f 9 -G tcpip
But it's useless since smbd make fork.

AIX system firmware upgrade (pSeries?) :

Sysplanar is something like motherboard in Intel domain, i.e. it is hardware.
It is possible to upgrade firmware when in maintenance mode - when there
is E1F1 on the LCD display right on the machine press key 1 (not on the
numeric keyboard) if you have ASCII terminal.
If you have graphical console press functional key 'F1'
you will be directed to standalone diagnostics menu

the firmware you can find here together with description:

if you cannot boot and have the shell prompt you can do it according
the paragraph 'Updating with the Diagnostic Service Aid Method' - see
the description from the link mentioned above.

in the diagnostics menu you can find 'current firmware as well (there
is something like 'Display config' there')

Diagnostics can be ran against a single device while online

use the
diag -d devicename

bindprocessor -q ( will give you the number of proc. )
lscfg  -v ( will give your system info. )
lsmcode -A  ( will give you the proc. firmware + others )

chuser maxage=0 username

Some good stuff on OpenMP and AIX (among other things):

Someone on AIX-L indicated that this was a good vmtune for a database system:
/usr/samples/kernel/vmtune -p 5  -P 20    ( to set the max perm and min
perm values)

Getting an AIX machine's serial number:

esmf04m-root> uname -m

LoadLeveler upgrade PMR# 70374-227 - website only showing linux downloads
of loadleveler, no AIX downloads

From a post on AIX-L:

IBM recommends the following formula to calculate the amount of paging
space you need...

For memories larger than 256 MB, the following is recommended:

total paging space = 512 MB + (memory size - 256 MB) * 1.25

For 1024MB RAM = 1600MB Paging Space

1 LP = 64 MB = add 17 LP's to = 1600MB

This is what we use while running AIX 5L.

Changing a forgotten root password on AIX:

1.      Insert the product media for the same version and level as the
current installation into the appropriate drive. 
2.      Power on the machine. 
3.      When the screen of icons appears, or when you hear a double
beep, press the F1 key repeatedly until the System Management Services
menu appears. 
4.      Select Multiboot. 
5.      Select Install From. 
6.      Select the device that holds the product media and then select
7.      Select the AIX version icon. 
8.      Define your current system as the system console by pressing the
F1 key and then press Enter. 
9.      Select the number of your preferred language and press Enter. 
10.     Choose Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery by typing 3
and press Enter. 
11.     Select Access a Root Volume Group. A message displays explaining
that you will not be able to return to the Installation menus without
rebooting if you change the root volume group at this point. 
12.     Type 0 and press Enter. 
13.     Type the number of the appropriate volume group from the list
and press Enter. 
14.     Select Access this Volume Group and start a shell by typing 1
and press Enter. 
15.     At the # (number sign) prompt, type the passwd command at the
command line prompt to reset the root password. For example: 

16.       # passwd
17.       Changing password for "root"
18.       root's New password: 
Enter the new password again:

19.     To write everything from the buffer to the hard disk and reboot
the system, type the following: 


turning off diagnostic lights:

/usr/lpp/diagnostics/bin/usysfault -s normal

AIX filesystems and quotas:
bluesky's /home is JFS, not JFS2, according to the mount command on
/home's NFS server.

I also called IBM support to verify what we've been seeing on the web. 
The tech I reached indicated that:

1) JFS2 does not support quotas in AIX 5.1 or AIX 5.2
2) Many customers have been requesting quotas for JFS2
3) He has not heard of any plans to add quota support to JFS2 for AIX 5.3
4) He would not be surprised if quotas for JFS2 are added to the IBM AIX
   roadmap sometime soon, given the high demand
We now have reason to want to move from 5.1 to 5.3 (we want quotas on
/ptmp, and we want /ptmp to be a bit under 2 terrabytes; JFS in AIX 5.1
does quotas, but not 1T+ filesystems, and JFS 2 on AIX 5.1 does 1T+
filesystems, but not quotas; I understand that 5.3's JFS2 does large
filesystems as well as quotas).
The new piece of news is, that if we were to gateway lustre to AIX over
SMB/CIFS, we -wouldn't- have to resort to "sharity", which was a product
that IBM was unlikely to be able to support.  It turns out that AIX 5.2
and up, include an SMB/CIFS client.  So we could upgrade to AIX 5.3 (and
we want to anyway, to get quotas in JFS2), and use IBM's implementation
of an SMB/CIFS client, with samba on esmft2.
I'm shy to even try IBM's JFS, because it comes from OS/2 and not AIX.
JFS really lacked a _lot_ of traditional UNIX capabilities in its first
releases on Linux, unlike XFS.
The consensus on comp.unix.aix appears to be that JFS (1) will not allow
one-large /ptmp like Charlie wants.

Recall that we recently moved /ptmp from JFS2 to JFS to get quotas.

It turns out that in AIX 5.3, JFS2 can do quotas.

IBM informs me that PSSP is never going to be ported to AIX 5.3.  There is
a followon product like PSSP called "CSM", and it runs on recent AIX and
Linux, but it is not going to support an SP2 switch, like the ESMF has.

Redirect console messages to a specific file of your choosing:
swcons /tmp/console.messages

Checking if an AIX machine is still marketed and/or supported by IBM:

Like tcpdump/ethereal?

iptrace -e -i lo0 /tmp/iptrace.out, ( let it run for 5 minutes, kill it)
ipreport /tmp/iptrace.out

# lscfg -vp | grep -e "Memory DIMM" -e "Size"
      Memory DIMM:
      Memory DIMM:
      Memory DIMM:
      Memory DIMM:

Clipped from a message on AIX-L - outlines the procedure for replacing
a bad disk in a logical volume:

u must procee in tyhos order:
1- unmirror the rootvg (unmirror rootvg hdisk1)
2- extrcat hdisk1 from rootvg (reducevg rootvg hdisk1) hidsk1 should not 
have any other data, if yes, move them first
3- rmdev -dl hdisk1
4- put the new pv
5- cvrmgrl
6- extendvg rootvg "the new pv"
7-mirrorvg rootvg hdsikxxx

And another:

Use this redbook, page 182, section 6.5.1.

On -some- IBM (PowerPC) machines, you boot to singleuser by hitting F5
during the boot

Where to get firmware for pSeries machines:

"I believe the p in p-Series stands for Performance.
While the i in i-Series stands for Integrated."
"I believe the p in pSeries stands for Power as in the power 5 chip 
architecture the hardware uses."

OK, from the (0)> prompt enter either ? or h - these subcommands list
all the available subcommands you can key into the kdb at the (0)>
prompt. Unfortunately, unless you know what you are looking for its
hard to understand the output.

The common commands to use are stat and staus - which will show the
status of the system and dump, vmlog and vmstat will show any memory
errors that may have caused the dump.

You really need an indepth knowledge of how the system works to
decipher most of the output and Im afraid theres no easy way to do it.

This link has a list of all the kdb subcommands


Paul (on AIX-L)

bindprocessor is for binding a process to a specific CPU

esmf04m-root> sysdumpdev -l
primary              /dev/lv00
secondary            /dev/sysdumpnull
copy directory       /var/adm/ras
forced copy flag     TRUE
always allow dump    TRUE
dump compression     OFF
Wed Oct 26 13:43:31

From a IBM AIX partner:

GIL is a kernel process, which does TCP/IP timing. It handles
transmission errors, ACKs, etc. Normally it shouldn't consume too much
CPU, but it can take quite a lot of CPU when the system is using the
network a lot (like with NFS filesystems which are heavily used).
The kproc gil runs the TCP/IP timer driven operations. Every 200ms, and
every 500ms the GIL thread is kicked to go run protocol timers. With TCP
up (which is ALWAYS the case), TCP timers are called which end up
looking at every connection on the system (to do retransmission, delayed
acks,etc). In version 4 this work is all done on a multi-threaded kproc
to promote concurrency and SMP scalability.gil.

GIL is one of the kprocs (kernel processes) in AIX 4.3.3, 5.1 and 5.2.
Since the advent of topas in AIX 4.3.3 and changes made to the ps
command in AIX 5.1, system administrators have become aware of this
class of processes, which are not new to AIX. These kprocs have no
user interfaces and have been largely undocumented in base
documentation. Once a kproc is started, typically it stays in the
process table until the next reboot. The system resources used by any
one kproc are accounted as kernel resources, so no separate account is
kept of resources used by an individual kproc.
Most of these kprocs are NOT described in base AIX documentation and
the descriptions below may be the most complete that can be found.
GIL term is an acronym for "Generalized Interrupt Level" and was
created by the Open Software Foundation (OSF), This is the networking
daemon responsible for processing all the network interrupts, including
incoming packets, tcp timers, etc.
Exactly how these kprocs function and much of their expected behavior
is considered IBM proprietary information.

In the event of a power failure, from "jessie" on the AIX-L mailing list:

check you error report for an entry that states
if there is an entry post it in detail to have a look at the Power status
registers, and the sense data.

If it is not a true failure such as a fan, or power supply then you would
notice in the logs that the problem started after a shutdown, or power

"pstat -S will associate processor to process but not
process to processor. It is a matter of opinion if
this is what you want. "

Superb page on AIX:

...but I think there may be a bit of a mistake on how to do backups to
a remote tape drive...  dd -should- work for that, but IME, it doesn't.

AIX supports large pages with 32-bit and 64-bit kernels. Applications,
either 32-bit or 64-bit,
can take advantage of large pages. The extended common object file format
XCOFF64), the object file format for AIX, provides a flag to identify
binaries if they are set (or
cleared) to use large pages (or turn the large pages flag) through ldedit10.
The flag can also
be turned on at load time (ld)10 with the following commands:
ld command: ld -blpdata -o a.out
ldedit command: ldedit -blpdata a.out (or -bnolpdata a.out)

An AIX upgrade procedure:

I just went through this with my company, and wrote some directions as
to what we should do; I will share this document with you.  
Some of this is specific to my company, but you may find it useful

You should do a complete configuration management scheme/snapshot of
your system:
1) execute df -Ik
2) execute lsvg, lsvg -p for each vg, and lsvg -l for each vg
3) execute lspv
4) execute bootlist -m normal -o and bootlist -m service -o
5) execute bootinfo -y and bootinfo -k
6) execute lspv -a
7) execute lsvg -M rootvg
8) execute lsconf

You want to document everything from above so that you can have this to
re-create your system should there be any mistakes or unfortunate

This just helps you to know exactly what your system looks like, before
you make any changes.

Go to this site and you will get exactly what you need:

Choose the -> AIX 5.3 link and choose follow the prompts to get you the
correct maintenance level(s).

Please let me know if this is of any help.


LeRoy S. Phillips 'Phil'
UNIX System Administrator (AIX/SAP)

From a message on IBM-AIX-L:

I get these stupid messages all the time and I just filter them and send 
them to junk.
I've tried making the sysdumpdev bigger, but it comes back and wants it 
to be just a little bigger than I made it.
IBM does recommend that you use a second sysdumpdev.

                                SYSTEM DUMP
IBM recommends:
    Don't mirror the system dump device
    Don't use compression on the dump device
    Don't use a secondary dump device unless it is on a separate device, 
separate cable and separate i/o card.

sysdumpdev -l        Lists current dump destination.
sysdumpdev -e        Estimates dumpsize of the current system in bytes.
sysdumpdev -L        Displays information about the previous dump.
sysdumpdev -c   <-- the system dump device will not be compressed
when the next dump is taken
sysdumpdev -p (dump device) -P        Sets the default dump device, permanently
sysdumpdev -P -s /dev/sysdumpnull       <--     makes the secondary
dump device a bit bucket (recommended)

sysdumpstart -p      Starts a dump and writes to the primary dump device.
sysdumpstart -s      Starts a dump and writes to the secondary dump device.

(MCA machine can also dump if key is in service position and the reset
 button is pressed)

Analyze dump file :-
echo "stat\n status\n t -m" | crash /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0

$ errpt
F89FB899   0822150005 P O dumpcheck      The copy directory is too small

This message is the result of a dump device check. You can fix this by 
increasing the size of your dump device. If you are using the default 
dump device (/dev/hd6) then increase your paging size or go to smit dump 
and "select System Dump Compression". Myself, I don't like to use the 
default dump device so I create a sysdumplv and make sure I have enough 
space. To check space needed go to smit dump and select "Show Estimated 
Dump Size" this will give you an idea about the size needed.

The copy directory is whatever sysdumpdev says it is.
Run sysdumpdev and you will get something like
primary              /dev/hd6
secondary            /dev/sysdumpnull
copy directory       /var/adm/ras
forced copy flag     TRUE          
always allow dump    FALSE
dump compression     ON   
# sysdumpdev -e             
0453-041 Estimated dump size in bytes: 57881395
Divide this number by 1024.  This is the free space that is needed in 
your copy directory.  Compare it to a df -k or divide this number by 
512.  This is the free space that is needed in your copy directory.  
Compare it to a df

Getting patches - even for EOL'd releases?
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