Kerberos authentication configuration for AIX servers

Kerberos authentication configuration for AIX servers

1. Introduction

This document explains how to configure the authentication (for locally defined users) through an Active Directory 2008 R2 using Kerberos on AIX 5.3 and 7.1.

It is explained for the MyDomain.MyForest environment but is easily transposable to any other domains of the MyForest Active Directory forest.

Warning
In the command lines, the values between "<" and ">" are to be replaced by values appropriated to your context. Example: kinit <user.name> can become kinit joseph.herlant in some environements.

2. Procedure

2.1. Preparing environment

Install Kerberos filesets (aka NAS software). On AIX 5.3 as well as on AIX 7.1 there are 3 filesets to install: the client (krb5.client.rte), the localized (english here) messages (krb5.msg.en_US.client.rte) and the license (krb5.lic).

# Install filesets from NIM using the commands bellow
/usr/sbin/nim -o allocate -a lpp_source='<LPPSOURCE_CONTAINING_FILESETS>' <SERVER_NAME>
/usr/sbin/nim -o cust -a installp_flags='-acgXNY' -a filesets='krb5.client.rte krb5.lic krb5.msg.en_US.client.rte' <SERVER_NAME>
/usr/sbin/nim -o deallocate -a lpp_source='<LPPSOURCE_CONTAINING_FILESETS>' <SERVER_NAME>


# or use smit and install these packages:
# Alternatively you can use this command on a server
# where the installation packages are available in/mnt"
installp -ac -SvYXgd /mnt krb5.client.rte krb5.msg.en_US.client.rte krb5.lic

Check if the installation is successfull using installp -s all (to check all packages applied but not commited) and lslpp -l krb5* (to check whether the package is installed or not. Correct output example:

# installp -s all
installp:  No filesets were found in the Software
        Vital Product Database in the APPLIED state.
# lslpp -l krb5*
  Fileset                      Level  State      Description
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Path: /usr/lib/objrepos
  krb5.client.rte            1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
                                                 Client
  krb5.lic                   1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
                                                 License
  krb5.msg.en_US.client.rte  1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Auth Service Client
                                                 Msgs - U.S. English

Path: /etc/objrepos
  krb5.client.rte            1.5.0.2  COMMITTED  Network Authentication Service
                                                 Client

Add Kerberos binaries to the PATH variable and in /etc/environment:

# In current environment
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/krb5/bin:/usr/krb5/sbin
# And for further configuration, add those to the PATH declaration in /etc/environment.
# The lines bellow can do it for you automatically:
cp /etc/environment /etc/environment.bak
awk '{
    if($1 ~ /^PATH=.*/ && $0 !~ /.*:\/usr\/krb5\/bin.*/)
    {printf("%s:/usr/krb5/bin:/usr/krb5/sbin\n",$0);}
    else { print $0;}
}' /etc/environment.bak > /etc/environment

Change max_logname for login length:

Warning
this requires a restart of the server. The reboot can be skipped as long as you don’t want to create users with a login longer than the default length (that is 9 characters).
chdev -l sys0 -a max_logname=64
# Requires a restart
shutdown -Fr

2.2. Configuring Kerberos

Generate Kerberos client configuration files using the config.krb5 as following. Here we choose to have the realm name the same name as the domain. But notice that the realm name MUST be UPPER CASE!
Generally speaking, the kdc is on the active directory server, but that is not mandatory.

# The value of the "-r" argument must be written in UPPER CASE!
config.krb5 -C -r MYDOMAIN.MYFOREST -d mydomain.myforest -s my_active_directory_server_name  -c my_kdc_server_name

Adapt kerberos configuration files "/etc/krb5/krb5.conf" to change the default_tkt_enctypes and default_tgs_enctypes to match the windows 2008 R2 Kerberos supported encrption types (cf. http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd560670%28v=WS.10%29.aspx). This would determine which algorithm to use when exchaning informations with the Active Directory. By default, AES256 is available on Active Directory 2008 R2, so this configuration will use it to encrypt the communication channel.

It should look like this (Be careful to the order, it determines which algorithm is used first. It MUST be THIS ordering):

        default_tkt_enctypes = aes256-cts aes128-cts arcfour-hmac
        default_tgs_enctypes = aes256-cts aes128-cts arcfour-hmac

For AIX 7.1 and AIX 6.1 (not tested for 6.1), add the following block to the "/etc/methods.cfg" file:

KRB5:
        program = /usr/lib/security/KRB5
        program_64 = /usr/lib/security/KRB5_64
        options = authonly,tgt_verify=no,is_kadmind_compat=no

KRB5files:
        options = db=BUILTIN,auth=KRB5

For AIX 5.3, add the following block to the "/usr/lib/security/methods.cfg" file:

KRB5:
        program = /usr/lib/security/KRB5A
        options = tgt_verify=no

KRB5files:
        options = db=BUILTIN,auth=KRB5

Setup "Kerberos 5" as a valid authentication type for AIX to use:

# lsauthent
Standard Aix
# chauthent -k5 -std
# lsauthent
Kerberos 5
Standard Aix

3. Adapt the environment

3.1. Enable AD users to connect to the server

To enable Active directory users to log to the server, you should create a local account by doing the following.

Create a user locally with a login name that exists on the Active Directory (and that will be able to connect to the server in the future) using the following command (you should have a matrix of corresponding AD users and local userid):

mkuser registry=KRB5files SYSTEM=KRB5files id=<user_id>  <user.name>

Test an SSH connection on the lookup adress (to avoid any other network issue):

ssh 127.0.0.1 -l <user.name>
Note
If the above commands do not work, use kinit locally on the target server to check if the user can be authenticated against the Kerberos server (i.e: kinit <user.name>).

3.2. Integration of existing local users

To change the authentication parameters for your local users to use KRB5files (Kerberos):

chuser registry=KRB5files SYSTEM=KRB5files <user.name>

3.3. Mapping a local login to a different AD login

First of all, add the kerberos authentication mode to the user using chuser registry=KRB5files SYSTEM=KRB5files <user.name> command explained in the previous step.

It is possible to map a local login with an Active Directory account that is using another login name. For this, use the auth_name attribute of the local user like this :

chuser auth_name=<active.directory.login> <local.user.name>

For example, to map the "joseph" local user to the remote "joseph.herlant" user, use the following (after the execution of the chuser registry=KRB5files SYSTEM=KRB5files <user.name> command explained in the previous step) :

chuser auth_name=joseph.herlant joseph
Note
To map a local user to an Active Directory login that do not match the default domain realm, refer to the next step: "Cross domains authentication".
 

4. Cross domains authentication

The following procedure explains the integration of MySecondDomain.MyForest user authentication in an environment where MyDomain.MyForest is the default authentication domain.

In the /etc/methods file, verify that the "tgl_verify=no" option is set:

KRB5:
        program = /usr/lib/security/KRB5
        program_64 = /usr/lib/security/KRB5_64
        options = authonly,tgt_verify=no,is_kadmind_compat=no

KRB5files:
        options = db=BUILTIN,auth=KRB5

Then add the "dns_lookup_kdc = true" and "dns_lookup_realm = false" lines to the libdefaults stanza of the "/etc/krb5/krb5.conf" file and add your new realm and domain realms as follow (the following is to enable MySecondDomain domain users for a server configured for MyDomain):

[libdefaults]
        default_realm = MYDOMAIN.MYFOREST
        default_keytab_name = FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab
        default_tkt_enctypes = arcfour-hmac aes256-cts aes128-cts
        default_tgs_enctypes = arcfour-hmac aes256-cts aes128-cts
        dns_lookup_kdc = true
        dns_lookup_realm = false

[realms]
        MYDOMAIN.MYFOREST = {
                kdc = <my_kdc_server_name>:88
                admin_server = <my_active_directory_server>:749
                default_domain = <MyDomain>
        }

        MYSECONDDOMAIN.MYFOREST = {
                kdc = <my_kdc_for_mySecodaryDomain>:88
                admin_server = <my_ad_server>:749
                default_domain = <mySecondDomain>
        }

[domain_realm]
        .mydomain.myforest = MYDOMAIN.MYFOREST
        mydomain.myforest = MYDOMAIN.MYFOREST
        .myseconddomain.myforest = MYSECONDDOMAIN.MYFOREST
        myseconddomain.myforest = MYSECONDDOMAIN.MYFOREST

[logging]
        kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/log/krb5kdc.log
        admin_server = FILE:/var/krb5/log/kadmin.log
        kadmin_local = FILE:/var/krb5/log/kadmin_local.log
        default = FILE:/var/krb5/log/krb5lib.log

Then change the auth_name and auth_domain attribute to match the realm corresponding to you. For example:

chuser auth_domain=MYSECONDDOMAIN.MYFOREST auth_name=<active.directory.login> <local.user.name>
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